gonotec

With more than 30 years in the industry, Gonotec excel because of their knowledge and high-quality products. Knowing their customers and being familiar with their problems results in Gonotec's understanding of what customers require when it comes to product quality and specification. Gonotec will continue to innovate so to enhance both their instruments and their quality of service.

Authorised dealer for:

UK and Ireland only (sole agent)

05/06/2019

New Gonotec osmometer consumable from Wolflabs

Product Update

New calibration standard from Gonotec has been added.

Product Category: Osmometers - Consumables

Manufacturer: Gonotec

10/05/2019

Gonotec osmometer from Wolflabs

Product Update

Introduction
Gonotec Osmomat auto osmometer from Wolflabs. The Osmomat auto is a fully automatic freezing point osmometer, which is used for measurement of total osmolality in aqueous solutions. Up to 20 samples per measuring series are automatically analyzed and the results are stored.

Features and benefits 
- Automatic calibration meaning no manual adjustment of a potentiometer is required.
- No ice formation in the lower cooling system giving reliable measurements even for long working periods.
- Automatic measuring makes for simple operation.
- Disposable plastic measuring vessels which saves time and money.

Product Category: Osmometers

Manufacturer: Gonotec

25/06/2017

Gonotec osmometer from Wolflabs

Product Update

Introduction
Gonotec Osmomat auto osmometer from Wolflabs. The Osmomat auto is a fully automatic freezing point osmometer, which is used for measurement of total osmolality in aqueous solutions. Up to 20 samples per measuring series are automatically analyzed and the results are stored. The Osmomat auto is based on the for decades proven measuring principle of the Osmomat 030. A powerful and efficient measuring system is obtained by means of the system to initiate crystallization with ice crystals and the simple menu-driven operation allows its application in laboratories with a daily large number of samples.

Features and benefits
- Relief of the user by means of the fully automatic measurement of up to 20 samples
- Automatic calibration: no manual adjustment of a potentiometer is required
- No ice formation in the lower cooling system: reliable measurements even for long working periods
- Measuring time approx. 70 secs. per single measurement: important for daily large number of samples
- Automatic measuring: simple operation
- Minimum sample volume: 50 µl standard sample volume
- Disposable plastic measuring vessels: saves time and money
- Air cooling: no water supply needed, electronic wall-socket suffices
- Latest electronic engineering: microprocessor controlled, automatic determination, display and storage of the result
- Clearly arranged front panel with menudriven operation and LCD-display
- Automatic error-detection: display shows clear error messages
- Entering of sample data by means of a barcode reader possible
- Measurement documentation by means of an integrated printer: provides a hard copy of the result with date, time and sample data

Product Category: Osmometers

Manufacturer: Gonotec

02/04/2017

Gonotec osmometer from Wolflabs

Product Update

Introduction
Gonotec Osmomat 090 osmometer from Wolflabs. The Osmomat 090 enables the measurement of the average molecular weight (Mn) of polymers that are soluble in aqueous or organic solvents within the range of 10,000 to 2,000,000 g/Mol.

Features and benefits
- High-performance measuring cell
- Short response times
- Small sample volumes
- Highest measuring resolution of 0.1 mm liquid column per digit
- Avoids "balloon effects"
- Membrane diameter of 40mm

Product Category: Osmometers

Manufacturer: Gonotec

09/01/2017

Gonotec osmometer from Wolflabs

Product Update

Introduction
Gonotec Osmomat 010 osmometer from Wolflabs. The Osmomat 010 is a universal cryoscopic osmometer for the determination of molar masses in benzene solution and of the total osmolality in aqueous solutions. The Osmomat 010 is suitable for measuring freezing points of solvents of aqueous and organic solutions which have a freezing point between +10 and -5°C. The instrument is especially useful for rapid quality control measurements in industrial facilities as well as for research in scientific laboratories.

Features and benefits
- Automatic calibration by switch
- No ice formation in the lower cooling system: reliable measurements even for long working periods
- Measuring time approximately 1 min: valuable in case of serial measurements
- Measurements and determination microprocessor controlled
- Minimum sample volume: 50µL
- Disposable plastic measuring vessels save time and costs
- Automatic error detection and display
- Optional measurement documentation by integrated matrix printer: date, time, sample number and measuring result are printed

Product Category: Osmometers

Manufacturer: Gonotec

Chloride Meter Gonotec CM20

Advantages

• Minimum sample volumes
• Perfect for determination of sweat samples
• Simple operation and handling
• Automatic measuring
• Fast operational readiness
• IVD-control standard in OPC-ampoules

Simple Handling and Documentation

• The CM20 chloride meter can be controlled easily and comfortably via a touch screen display.
• The results are sent to the optional built-in printer in document-ready format.
• A PC for data transfer can be connected via USB or RS232.
• The last results remain available for reading even after automatic switching to stand-by mode.
• The robust design of the measurement equipment makes the CM20 chloride meter easy to handle and maintain.
• Through the use of microprocessor

Automated Measurement Process

The measurement principle is based on coulometric impulse titration as an absolute measurement method. Through automated sample recognition, the measurement proceeds fully automatically after the sample is inserted without the need for manual confirmation by the user.

The end of the titration is determined by the measurement electrodes, which permanently determine the conductivity of the solution. This allows the CM20 chloride meter to be operated quickly and easily without the need for many years of experience in the classic chloride determination method. If the chloride ion concentration is very low, it is possible to raise the concentration using the standard solution.

Special Application: Cystic Fibrosis

Only small amounts of sweat are needed

• Ready-to-use electrolyte (acid buffer and stabilization additive); complies with IVD
• Required electrolyte replacement is indicated
• Required electrode cleaning is indicated (frequent source of error)
• Reference solution 100mmol/l; complies with IVD
• GMP-compliant (Rili-Bäk, MPG) qualification and validation in hospitals and cystic fibrosis clinics

Other Applications
The system is used both in medical laboratory diagnostics and in industry.

• Chloride determination in serum, urine, sweat or other body fluids
• Examination of food products for quality control purposes
• Water analysis of service water and wastewater
• Agricultural and ecological examinations for determination of salt content in soils
• Building material analysis in the production of cement and plaster
• Quality control in the chemical industry, e.g. in the production of fixing and developing baths
• Production control in the preparation of antibiotics and other pharmaceutical products
• Examination of the salt content of drilling muds in the mineral oil industry

Technical Information

Model: CM20
Standard Equipment
Sample volume 20 µl
Duration of a measurement Approx. 20 seconds
Reproducibility ± 2 digits (20 µl) at 100 mmol/l
Measurement display 0 - 999 mmol/l
Measurement range 10 - 999 mmol/l
Resolution 1 mmol/l over the entire measurement range
Integrated stirring Magnetic stir bar PTFE, cylindrical
Ambient temperature 10-35 °C
Power source 220 V (± 30V), 50/60 Hz, 40 VA, special models 110V, 100V
Dimensions 220 x 205 x 360 mm (L x W x H)
Weight Approx. 5.7 kg
D Option
Printer Graphical dot matrix printer, date, time and sample information on each measurement
Digits = 16 characters per row
Paper Normal paper, 43 mm wide
Print modes Single printing, batch printing
Error reporting Printed in plain text
COM Option
Digital data interface 2 x RS232, 1 x USB
BC Option
Digitale Dateneingabe Connection of a barcode reader for reading data

Osmometers - Gonotec

The design of the OSMOMAT auto is based on ten years of experience with the measuring principle of the OSMOMAT 030. We have been able to automate the draining of the measuring system so that it is possible to reliably obtain a high sample throughput. The simple menu-driven operation allows for a minimum of user interaction and allows for automated operation of the OSMOMAT.


Advantages

•minimum user involvement via fully automatic measurement of up to 20 samples
•simple and fast
•small sample volume: 50 µL standard sample volume
•easy calibration
•measuring time: approximately 70 seconds per single measurement
•disposable plastic measuring vessels save time and money
•menu-driven operation
•automatic error detection: display shows clear error message
•sample data can be entered by means of a barcode reader
•measurement documentation by means of an integrated printer
•three different print versions with different information are possible, depending on the system configuration
•constant stand-by mode allows operation over a long period of time

Measurement Method

The total osmolality of an aqueous solution is determined by comparing the freezing point of pure water and the freezing point of the sample.

Water has a freezing point of 0 °C, a solution with saline concentration of 1Osmol/kg has a freezing point of -1.858 °C.


Applications

The OSMOMAT auto solves your problem when a large number of samples must be measured.

This unit is employed when routine measurements in the medical sector or in industry and research are required. The OSMOMAT auto can determine the total osmolality of aqueous solutions when small sample volumes are available or a short measuring time is required.

Technical Information

Standard

Sample volume: 50µl
Duration of a single
measurement:
approx. 70 seconds
Reproducibility: = ± 1%
Measuring range: 0 up to 2500 mOsmol/kg
Resolution: 1 mOsmol/kg over the entire range
Initiation of the
crystallization process:
by inoculation of the sample with ice crystals
Calibration: 2 or 3 adjustable points
Cooling: peltier-cooling system with heat dissipation by air
Humidity: 10-90% non condensing
Display: LCD-display, 4 lines à 20 digits
Ambient temperature: 10°C up to max. 30°C
Power supply: ~100/115/230 V, 50/60 Hz, 120 VA
Weight: approx. 11,6 kgs
Internal printer: alpha-numerical matrix printer
5 × 7 matrix
Digits: 4-digits for sample number,
4-digits for result
Paper: normal paper, 43 mm
Ink ribbon: endless ink ribbon cassette,
exchangeable
Printer function: switch on/off
3 print modes
Error: the nature of error is printed clearly
RS-output: data output (serial)
standardized interface
Baud rate: 9600 bps
Data format: 8 data bits, 1 stop bit
(no parity check)
Data line: TXD
Connector: D-Sub, 9-pole
Interface: external barcode reader
Standard accessories: 1000 disposable plastic measuring vessels
20 ampoules of calibration standard
300 mOsmol/kg
10 ampules of calibration standard
850 mOsmol/kg
10 ampules of OSMOREF® 290 mOsmol/kg
2 spare fuses
8 rolls of printer-paper
1 roll of cleaning paper
1 adjustment tool
1 mains cable
1 instruction manual
Optional: external barcode reader with mains adapter

Osmometer Control Unit B

The control unit B includes all control-, monitoring- and measuring functions required for determination of the molecular weight. The measuring parameter are manually adjusted by switches at the front panel of the device. The 4-digit display alternatively shows the actual measuring result ( 1 digit equals to 1mV) at the output of the amplifier or the actual temperature of the measuring cell. A potentiometric recorder can be connected to the control unit B (recommended sensitivity 1 Volt full scale).
The evaluation for the final molecular weight Mn has to be done by the user himself (whereas the control unit SA offers a complete evaluation with a final report).

Technical Information

Standard

Analog recorder output: recommended sensitivity: 1 V for full deflection
Dimensions: 260 x 320 x 110 mm
Weight: approx. 3,5 kgs
Mains voltage for all instruments: 115/220 V, 50/60 Hz

Osmometer Control Unit SA

The control unit SA is based on a modified PC and is monitoring the measuring cells with a specially developed software for this application.
Besides the control-, monitoring- and measuring functions, the unit undertakes the user guiding through the total measuring procedure and the final evaluation.
In the evaluation, all measurement parameter and results are summarized and treated by a statistical calculation. The average molecular weight Mn is the result.
Parameter, measuring values, linear regression curve and final result are summarized on one page for printing.

Technical Information

Standard

Control-Unit SA with serial interface, monitor and keyboard and user’s guidance: software for OSMOMAT® 070 and OSMOMAT® 090 via monitor and keyboard
Storage of measuring results: automatically after a pre-set time
Drift compensation: automatically on call
Statistical evaluation: automatic calculation of the linear regression, erratic measuring results can be eliminated
Diagrams: screen projections of the current proceedings of the measuring results in an x-t-diagram or of
the linear regression
Printer output : printing of texts and diagrams with printer suitable
for graphics
Dimensions : control unit : 415 x 380 x 155 mm,
keyboard : 280 x 130 x 25 mm
Weights: control unit : approx. 9,0 kgs,
keyboard : approx. 0,5 kgs
Monitor: 14 inch, VGA, approx. 3,8 kgs

Osmometers - Gonotec

The OSMOMAT 010 is a universal cryoscopic osmometer for the determination of molar masses in benzene solution and the determination of the total osmolality in aqueous solutions. It is based on the well accepted measuring system of the OSMOMAT 030, which has been used for many years.

The OSMOMAT 010 is suitable for measuring freezing points of solvents of aqueous and organic solutions which have a freezing point between +10 and -5°C. The instrument is especially useful for rapid quality control measurements in industrial facilities as well as for research in scientific laboratories.


Advantages

•automatic calibration by switch
•no ice formation in the lower cooling system: reliable measurements even for long working periods
•measuring time approximately 1 min: valuable in case of serial measurements
•measurements and determination microprocessor controlled
•minimum sample volume: 50µL
•disposable plastic measuring vessels save time and costs
•automatic error detection and display
•optional measurement documentation by integrated matrix printer: date, time, sample number and measuring result are printed

Measurement Method

For the determination of the molar mass, the OSMOMAT 010 has to be calibrated first with the pure solvent and then with a solution with known molal concentration. It is then possible to adjust the zero point of the solvent with the range of -5ºC to 10ºC. The cell constant can be obtained from the calibration measurement, which then is used in the determination of the molar mass calculation.

For the sample measurement, solutions of concentrations of about 5 to 140 g/kg solvent will be prepared depending on the expected molecular weight. For the determination of molar masses below 1000 g/mol, a single point measurement is normally sufficient. Nonpolar substances may behave in a non-linear fashion in respect to the ratio measured value/concentrations in the range of low molecular weights and at least 3 solutions with graded concentrations should be measured.

The values obtained in this way have to be treated by means of linear regression analysis.

The total osmolality of aqueous solutions is determined by comparative measurements of the freezing points of pure water and of solutions. Water has a freezing point of 0ºC, a solution with saline concentration of 1 Osmol/kg has a freezing point of -1.858ºC.

Technical Information

Standard

Sample volume: 0,05 ml
Duration of the measurement: 1 minute
Reproducibility: 0,5 % of calibrated value
Display: 4 1/2 digit
Measuring range: up to approx. 3000 mOsmol/kg
in benzene approx. 40 up to 5000 dalton
Resolution: 1 mOsmol/kg over the
entire measuring range
in benzene approx. 3 digit/mMol/kg
Cooling: by means of two separate
peltier cooling systems
with heat dissipation by air
Stand by temperature: › 0 °C
ambient temperature: approx. 10 °C upto 35 °C
Integrated printer: alpha-numerical matrixprinter, 5x7 matrix,
date, time for each measurement,
4-digit sample number,
4-digit measuring result,
normal paper, 43mm, automatic paper feed
or with pushbutton,
endless ink ribbon cassette, exchangeable,
printer function switch on/off with pushbutton,
clear error messages
Analog output: through standardized 5-pole socket,
output voltage 1 mV/digit
RS data output: standardized interface RS 232 C
Dimensions: 220 x 205 x 360 mm
Weight: approx. 7 kgs
Power supply: 230 V (+/- 30 V), 50-60 Hz, 120 VA
or 110 V (+/- 15 V), 50-60 Hz

Osmometers - Gonotec

The OSMOMAT 030 is the standard system for the determination of the total osmolality in aqueous solutions.

This system is commonly used in clinical chemistry laboratories as well as research and development laboratories in the pharmaceutical industry. It is simple to operate, very reliable and provides extremely rapid sample handling.

A wide range of options and accessories are available to allow the user to configure the system to meet the specific needs of the laboratory.


Advantages

•automatic calibration by simple operator command •ice does not form in the lower cooling system, this leads to reliable measurements even for long working periods
•the measuring time is approximately one minute; valuable in case of serial measurements
•all measurements and calculations are microprocessor controlled
•minimum sample volume: 50 µL (15 µL version option available)
•disposable plastic measuring vessels save time and costs
•automatic error detection and display
•optional RS232-data output for transmitting the results to the laboratory PC
•optional measurement documentation by integrated matrix printer: date, time, sample number and result are printed
•meets the requirements of the pharmaceutical industry by means of the optional 3-point calibration

Measurement Method

The total osmolality of an aqueous solution is determined by comparing the freezing point of pure water and the freezing point of the sample.
Water has a freezing point of 0 °C, a solution with saline concentration of 1 Osmol/kg has a freezing point of -1.858 °C.

Technical Information

Standard

Sample volume: 50 µl to 30 µl
Duration of measurement : approx. one minute
Reproducibility <± 0.5% (50 µl)
<±1% (30 µl)
Display: 4,5 digits measuring range: up to approx. 3000 mOsmol/kg
Resolution: 1 mOsmol/kg over the entire measuring range
Initiation of the
crystallization process:
by means of the tip of a stainless steel needle covered with ice crystals which is controlled automatically
Cooling: by means of two separate peltier cooling systems with heat dissipation by air
Lower cooling system: electronic temperature regulation and stabilisation
Ambient temperature: 10 °C to 35 °C
Power supply: 230, 110 or 100 V-version available, (±10 %), 50-60 Hz, 120 VA
Dimensions: 220 x 205 x 360 mm
Weight: approx. 7 kg

 

Options
31.01: alpha-numerical matrix-printer 5x7 matrix
Digits: 4-digit for sample number,
4-digit for result
Paper: normal paper, 43 mm
Paper feed: automatically after each print and with pushbutton
Ink ribbon: endless ink ribbon cassette, exchangeable
Printer function: switch on/off with pushbutton
Error: the nature of the error is printed clearly
31.02: special version for 15 µl sample volume reproducibility then: <±2%
31.03: data output (serial), standardized interface RS 232 C
Baud rate: 1200 bps
Data format: 1 start bit, 8 data bits, 2 stop bits (no parity check)
Data line: TXD
Control line: DTR, DSR
Connector: Canon, 25-pole
31.04: analog output through standardized 5-pole socket output voltage: 1 mV/mOsmol
31.05: special version for calibration at 3 points

Osmometers - Gonotec

The OSMOMAT 050 was especially developed for use in intensive care units. It is designed to be used on a 24 h/day 7 day/week basis and the system is always ready to collect data. The system performs all cleaning and control operations during the stand-by period so that the user can perform a measurement at any time. After performing a measurement, the OSMOMAT 050 is automatically cleaned so the next measurement can be performed as required.


Advantages

•high-performance measuring cell
•minimum sample volume
•simple injection of the sample solution (plasma or serum, whole blood not recommended)
•measuring time < 1 minute
•automatic zero setting
•user selection of the pressure dimension (mm Hg), (cm water column) or (k-Pascal), respectively
•display of the first result and storage of a second value serve as a control of the equilibration of the system
•automatic rinsing of the measuring cell after each measurement
•simple calibration with hydrostatic pressure differential
•automatic stand-by function over longer periods of time

 

Measurement Method

The colloid-osmotic pressure is measured by means of an osmotic cell. The lower half of the osmotic cell is closed off to the environment and is filled with electrolyte-containing Ringer's solution.

The upper half of the cell is open to the environment and is filled with a colloid-containing solution.

The two halves of the cell are separated from each other by a semipermeable membrane.

This membrane possesses defined pores through which only water and electrolyte molecules can permeate.

Due to the osmotic pressure differential of the two solutions, solvent permeates from the lower into the upper half of the measuring cell until an equilibrium is reached between the under pressure in the lower half of the cell and the osmolal concentration of the colloids.

An electronic pressure measuring system, which is mounted into the lower half of the cell, transduces the under pressure into an electric signal, which is shown on a digital display.

 

Applications

The colloid osmometer is suitable for routine measurement and research in medical applications.

Due to the high degree of automation of the measuring and control functions of the OSMOMAT 050, the operator interaction is reduced to a minimum. This ensures that the instrument is always ready for measurement and the instrument is especially suitable for application in intensive care units.

Typical applications for the OSMOMAT 050 include the measurement of the colloid-osmotic pressure with blood loss, hypalbumenia, albumin therapy for the prevention of lung edemas and all diseases resulting in a change of the colloid-osmotic pressure.

Technical Information

Standard

Measurement volume: < 10 µL
Sample size: > 100 µL
Measurement time: 1-3 Minutes, Depending on membrane type
Measurement format: 99.9 mm Hg,
9.99 k-Pascal
Reproducibility: <± 0.5 mm Hg
Significant figures: 3 places
Zero point determination:
 
Automatic
Membrane material: Two layered membrane, each layer is able to retain compounds with molecular weight > 10,000 - 30,000 Dalton
Recorder Output: 2mV/Digit, ±10%, can be set for recorder compensation with 1 Volt output
Measurement: Direct pressure measurement via difference in hydrostatic pressure
Automation: 1. Stand alone wash of the upper half of the cell is available to prepare the cell

2. Storage of the results

3. Storage of all data values over a specified time period after the first measurement

 

Osmometers - Gonotec

The OSMOMAT 070 is suitable for the determination of the average molecular weight (Mn) of polymers which are soluble in different organic solvents and for the determination of the osmolality of aqueous solutions.
The instrument can measure the molecular weights in the range from 40 to 50,000 in organic solutions and up to approximately 5000 g/Mol in water.
 

Advantages

•temperature difference measurement with two thermistors of high resolution
•display of the temperature difference by means of the Wheatstone-bridge with a resolution of about 5 x 10-5 ºC
•auto zero adjustment of the measuring system
•cell is thermostated with a very high temperature constant
•adjustable cell temperature in steps of 1 ºC between 30 ºC and 130 ºC thermistors are suitable for measuring electrically conducting liquids

Measurement Method

The vapour pressure method is suitable for the determination of the average molecular weight of polymers which are soluble in a variety of different organic solvents and for the determination of osmolality of aqueous solutions.

Two thermistors, connected for difference measurement, are suspended in a thermostated measuring cell, which is filled with the saturated vapour of the solvent. The measuring probes, which are first covered with solvent droplets, will adapt to the cell temperature.

There is no temperature difference between the two probes. Exchanging the solvent droplet of one of the probes by a droplet of the solution will lead to condensation of solvent vapour due to the lower vapour pressure of the solvent above the solution. The released condensation enthalpy increases the temperature of the solution droplet, which simultaneously leads to an increase of the vapour pressure.

After reaching the vapour pressure equilibrium of the solution droplet, a relative stable temperature is obtained at the solution droplet.

This temperature is converted by the measuring system to a direct voltage signal and is thereby as a measuring value at the user's disposal. The resulting relative measuring value is nearly proportional to the osmolal concentration of the solutions, may be however affected by heat loss and non ideal behaviour of the polymer solutions.

By calibrating with solutions of known molality and osmolality and by means of a final statistical calculation of the measuring value, the nonlinear behaviour may be eliminated.

Technical Information

Standard

Lowest measurable concentration: toluene - 3,3 x 10-5Mol/kg
water - 1,7 x 10-4Mol/kg
Molecular weight range: 50-50.000 50-5.000 dalton
Specific vapor pressure of the solutions to be measured: < 0,1 % of the solvent used
Measuring probes for 2 temperature ranges: to be inserted in pairs for aqueous and organic solvents
Sample volume: approx. 1 ml per solution, at least 3 solutions in graduated molal conc.
Analog output: 1 mV/digit, max. 10V
Dimensions: 260 x 320 x 230 mm
Net weight: approx. 9,3 kgs
el.rate of power input: 180 VA
Calibration substances: benzil/benzoic acid/naphtalene.
The molal concentration should lie between 0,1 upto 1,5 Osmol/kg in water or 1 x 10-³ up to 3 x 10-² Mol/kg in organic solvents
Osmolality measurement: up to approx. 3.000 mOsmol/kg
(with control unit SA)
up to approx. 1.500 mOsmol/kg
(with control unit B)
Temperature range: 5 °C higher than ambient temperature upto 130 °C
Temperature adjustment: in steps of 1 °C
Accessories: the GONOTEC osmometers are supplied with all accessories necessary for putting the instrument into first operation

 

Osmometers - Gonotec

The OMSOMAT 090 enables the measurement of the average molecular weight (Mn) of polymers that are soluble in aqueous or organic solvents within the range of 10,000 to 2,000,000 g/Mol.

The measurement is highly dependent on the membrane that is used. GONOTEC offers membranes with different "cutoffs" that are made of different materials, so that a suitable configuration can be offered for most applications.
 

 

Advantages

•high-performance measuring cell
•short response times
•small sample volumes
•highest measuring resolution of 0.1 mm liquid column per digit
•avoids "balloon effects"
•membrane diameter of 40mm

Measurement Method

The membrane osmometer OSMOMAT 090 consists of an osmotic cell which is located in a cell thermostat.
The osmotic cell is divided into two sections by a semipermeable membrane.
In the lower section, a hermetically sealed cell which is filled with pure solvent, a precision pressure measuring system is installed.
The upper section, which is positioned above the semipermeable membrane, is designed as a meander-shaped channel system with a large surface. A funnel tube and a discharge valve enable rinsing and filling of the cell with solvent or polymer solution.
Due to the osmotic pressure difference between solvent and solution, a vacuum, which is related to the concentration of the osmotic actively solute particles, is generated in the lower cell half.

 

Technical Information

Standard

Smallest detectable pressure: 0,1 mm solvent solumn
Molecular weight range: 5000 to 2.000.000 dalton depending on the semi-permeable membrane selected
Measurement cell volume: approx. 0,5 ml
Membrane diameter: 40 mm
Solvents: various organic solvents, water and aqueous electrolyte solvents
Sample volume of polymer solution: at least 3 solutions of 2 ml each
(with stepped concentration in the range of 1 to 5 %)
Dimensions: 260 x 320 x 230 mm
Weight: approx. 10,0 kgs
el.rate of power input: 180 VA
Temperature range: 5 °C higher than ambient temperature upto 130 °C
Temperature adjustment: in steps of 1 °C
Accessories: the GONOTEC osmometers are supplied with all accessories necessary for putting the instrument into first operation